THE ONE THOUSAND NAMES OF LORD VISHNU TRANSLATIONS AND MEANINGS.
1) vishvam: He who is the universe, the virat-purusha 2) vishnuh: He who pervades everywhere 3) vashatkaarah: He who is invoked for oblations 4) bhoota-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh: The Lord of past, present and future 5) bhoota-krit: The creator of all creatures 6) bhoota-bhrit: He who nourishes all creatures 7) bhaavo: He who becomes all moving and nonmoving things 8) bhootaatmaa: The aatman of all beings 9) bhoota-bhaavanah: The cause of the growth and birth of all creatures 10) pootaatmaa: He with an extremely pure essence 11) paramaatmaa: The Supersoul 12) muktaanaam paramaa gatih: The final goal, reached by liberated souls 13) avyayah: Without destruction 14) purushah: He who dwells in the city of nine gates 15) saakshee: The witness 16) kshetrajnah: The knower of the field 17) akshara: Indestructible 18) yogah: He who is realized through yoga 19) yoga-vidaam netaa: The guide of those who know yoga 20) pradhaana-purusheshvarah: Lord of pradhaana and purusha 21) naarasimha-vapuh: He whose form is man-lion 22) shreemaan: He who is always with shree 23) keshavah: He who has beautiful locks of hair 24) purushottamah: The Supreme Controller 25) sarvah: He who is everything 26) sharvas: The auspicious 27) shivah: He who is eternally pure 28) sthaanuh: The pillar, the immovable truth 29) bhootaadih: The cause of the five great elements 30) nidhir-avyayah: The imperishable treasure 31) sambhavah: He who descends of His own free will 32) bhaavanah: He who gives everything to his devotees 33) bhartaa: He who governs the entire living world 34) prabhavah: The womb of the five great elements 35) prabhuh: The Almighty Lord 36) eeshvarah: He who can do anything without any help 37) svayambhooh: He who manifests from Himself 38) shambhuh: He who brings auspiciousness 39) aadityah: The son of Aditi (Vaamana) 40) pushkaraakshah: He who has eyes like the lotus 41) mahaasvanah: He who has a thundering voice 42) anaadi-nidhanah: He without origin or end 43) dhaataa: He who supports all fields of experience 44) vidhaataa: The dispenser of fruits of action 45) dhaaturuttamah: The subtlest atom 46) aprameyah: He who cannot be perceived 47) hrisheekeshah: The Lord of the senses 48) padmanaabhah: He from whose navel comes the lotus 49) amaraprabhuh: The Lord of the devas 50) vishvakarmaa: The creator of the universe 51) manuh: He who has manifested as the Vedic mantras 52) tvashtaa: He who makes huge things small 53) sthavishtah: The supremely gross 54) sthaviro dhruvah: The ancient, motionless one 55) agraahyah: He who is not perceived sensually 56) shaashvatah: He who always remains the same 57) krishno: He whose complexion is dark 58) lohitaakshah: Red-eyed 59) pratardanah: The Supreme destruction 60) prabhootas: Ever-full 61) trikakub-dhaama: The support of the three quarters 62) pavitram: He who gives purity to the heart 63) mangalam param: The Supreme auspiciousness 64) eeshanah: The controller of the five great elements 65) praanadah: He who gives life 66) praano: He who ever lives 67) jyeshthah: Older than all 68) shreshthah: The most glorious 69) prajaapatih: The Lord of all creatures 70) hiranyagarbhah: He who dwells in the womb of the world 71) bhoogarbhah: He who is the womb of the world 72) maadhavah: Husband of Lakshmi 73) madhusoodanah: Destroyer of the Madhu demon 74) eeshvarah: The contoller 75) vikramee: He who is full of prowess 76) dhanvee: He who always has a divine bow 77) medhaavee: Supremely intelligent 78) vikramah: He who stepped (Vaamana) 79) kramah: All-pervading 80) anuttamah: Incomparably great 81) duraadharshah: He who cannot be attacked successfully 82) kritajnah: He who knows all that is 83) kritih: He who rewards all our actions 84) aatmavaan: The self in all beings 85) sureshah: The Lord of the demigods 86) sharanam: The refuge 87) sharma: He who is Himself infinite bliss 88) visva-retaah: The seed of the universe 89) prajaa-bhavah: He from whom all praja comes 90) ahah: He who is the nature of time 91) samvatsarah: He from whom the concept of time comes 92) vyaalah: The serpent (vyaalah) to athiests 93) pratyayah: He whose nature is knowledge 94) sarvadarshanah: All-seeing 95) ajah: Unborn 96) sarveshvarah: Controller of all 97) siddhah: The most famous 98) siddhih: He who gives moksha 99) sarvaadih: The beginning of all 100) achyutah: Infallible 101) vrishaakapih: He who lifts the world to dharma 102) ameyaatmaa: He who manifests in infinite varieties 103) sarva-yoga-vinissritah: He who is free from all attachments 104) vasuh: The support of all elements 105) vasumanaah: He whose mind is supremely pure 106) satyah: The truth 107) samaatmaa: He who is the same in all 108) sammitah: He who has been accepted by authorities 109) samah: Equal 110) amoghah: Ever useful 111) pundareekaakshah: He who dwells in the heart 112) vrishakarmaa: He whose every act is righteous 113) vrishaakritih: The form of dharma 114) rudrah: He who makes all people weep 115) bahu-shiraah: He who has many heads 116) babhrur: He who rules over all the worlds 117) vishvayonih: The womb of the universe 118) shuchi-shravaah: He who has beautiful, sacred names 119) amritah: Immortal 120) shaashvatah-sthaanur: Permanent and immovable 121) varaaroho: The most glorious destination 122) mahaatapaah: He of great tapas 123) sarvagah: All-pervading 124) sarvavid-bhaanuh: All-knowing and effulgent 125) vishvaksenah: He against whom no army can stand 126) janaardanah: He who gives joy to good people 127) vedah: He who is the Vedas 128) vedavid: The knower of the Vedas 129) avyangah: Without imperfections 130) vedaangah: He whose limbs are the Vedas 131) vedavit: He who contemplates upon the Vedas 132) kavih: The seer 133) lokaadhyakshah: He who presides over all lokas 134) suraadhyaksho: He who presides over all devas 135) dharmaadhyakshah: He who presides over dharma 136) krita-akritah: All that is created and not created 137) chaturaatmaa: The four-fold self 138) chaturvyoohah: Vasudeva, Sankarshan etc 139) chaturdamstrah: He who has four canines (Nrsimha) 140) chaturbhujah: Four-handed 141) bhraajishnur: Self-effulgent consciousness 142) bhojanam: He who is the sense-objects 143) bhoktaa: The enjoyer 144) sahishnuh: He who can suffer patiently 145) jagadaadijah: Born at the beginning of the world 146) anaghah: Sinless 147) vijayah: Victorious 148) jetaa: Ever-successful 149) vishvayonih: He who incarnates because of the world 150) punarvasuh: He who lives repeatedly in different bodies 151) upendrah: The younger brother of Indra (vaamana) 152) vaamanah: He with a dwarf body 153) praamshuh: He with a huge body 154) amoghah: He whose acts are for a great purpose 155) shuchih: He who is spotlessly clean 156) oorjitah: He who has infinite vitality 157) ateendrah: He who surpasses Indra 158) samgrahah: He who holds everything together 159) sargah: He who creates the world from Himself 160) dhritaatmaa: Established in Himself 161) niyamo: The appointing authority 162) yamah: The administrator 163) vedyah: That which is to be known 164) vaidyah: The Supreme doctor 165) sadaa-yogee: Always in yoga 166) veerahaa: He who destroys the mighty heroes 167) maadhavo: The Lord of all knowledge 168) madhuh: Sweet 169) ateendriyo: Beyond the sense organs 170) mahaamayo: The Supreme Master of all Maayaa 171) mahotsaaho: The great enthusiast 172) mahaabalah: He who has supreme strength 173) mahaabuddhir: He who has supreme intelligence 174) mahaa-veeryah: The supreme essence 175) mahaa-shaktih: All-powerful 176) mahaa-dyutih: Greatly luminous 177) anirdeshya-vapuh: He whose form is indescribable 178) shreemaan: He who is always courted by glories 179) ameyaatmaa: He whose essence is immeasurable 180) mahaadri-dhrik: He who supports the great mountain 181) maheshvaasah: He who wields shaarnga 182) maheebhartaa: The husband of mother earth 183) shreenivaasah: The permanent abode of Shree 184) sataam gatih: The goal for all virtuous people 185) aniruddhah: He who cannot be obstructed 186) suraanando: He who gives out happiness 187) govindah: The protector of the cows 188) govidaam-patih: The Lord of all men of wisdom 189) mareechih: Effulgence 190) damanah: He who controls rakshasas 191) hamsah: The swan 192) suparnah: Beautiful-winged (Two birds analogy) 193) bhujagottamah: The serpent Ananta 194) hiranyanaabhah: He who has a golden navel 195) sutapaah: He who has glorious tapas 196) padmanaabhah: He whose navel is like a lotus 197) prajaapatih: He from whom all creatures emerge 198) amrityuh: He who knows no death 199) sarva-drik: The seer of everything 200) simhah: He who destroys 201) sandhaataa: The regulator 202) sandhimaan: He who seems to be conditioned 203) sthirah: Steady 204) ajah: He who takes the form of Aja, Brahma 205) durmarshanah: He who cannot be vanquished 206) shaastaa: He who rules over the universe 207) visrutaatmaa: He who is called atma in the Vedas 208) suraarihaa: Destroyer of the enemies of the devas 209) guruh: The teacher 210) gurutamah: The greatest teacher 211) dhaama: The goal 212) satyah: He who is Himself the truth 213) satya-paraakramah: Dynamic Truth 214) nimishah: He who has closed eyes in contemplation 215) animishah: He who remains unwinking; ever knowing 216) sragvee: He who always wears a garland of undecaying flowers 217) vaachaspatir-udaara-dheeh: He who is eloquent in championing the Supreme law of life; He with a large-hearted intelligence 218) agraneeh: He who guides us to the peak 219) graamaneeh: He who leads the flock 220) shreemaan: The possessor of light, effulgence, glory 221) nyaayah: Justice 222) netaa: The leader 223) sameeranah: He who sufficiently administers all movements of all living creatures 224) sahasra-moordhaa: He who has endless heads 225) vishvaatmaa: The soul of the universe 226) sahasraakshah: Thousands of eyes 227) sahasrapaat: Thousand-footed 228) aavartanah: The unseen dynamism 229) nivritaatmaa: The soul retreated from matter 230) samvritah: He who is vieled from the jiva 231) sam-pramardanah: He who persecutes evil men 232) ahassamvartakah: He who thrills the day and makes it function vigorously 233) vahnih: Fire 234) anilah: Air 235) dharaneedharah: He who supports the earth 236) suprasaadah: Fully satisfied 237) prasanaatmaa: Ever pure and all-blissful self 238) vishva-dhrik: Supporter of the world 239) vishvabhuk: He who enjoys all experiences 240) vibhuh: He who manifests in endless forms 241) satkartaa: He who adores good and wise people 242) satkritah: He who is adored by all good people 243) saadhur: He who lives by the righteous codes 244) jahnuh: Leader of men 245) naaraayanah: He who resides on the waters 246) narah: The guide 247) asankhyeyah: He who has numberlesss names and forms 248) aprameyaatmaa: A soul not known through the pramanas 249) vishishtah: He who transcends all in His glory 250) shishta-krit: The law-maker 251) shuchih: He who is pure 252) siddhaarthah: He who has all arthas 253) siddhasankalpah: He who gets all He wishes for 254) siddhidah: The giver of benedictions 255) siddhisaadhanah: The power behind our sadhana 256) vrishaahee: Controller of all actions 257) vrishabhah: He who showers all dharmas 258) vishnuh: Long-striding 259) vrishaparvaa: The ladder leading to dharma (As well as dharma itself) 260) vrishodarah: He from whose belly life showers forth 261) vardhanah: The nurturer and nourisher 262) vardhamaanah: He who can grow into any dimension 263) viviktah: Separate 264) shruti-saagarah: The ocean for all scripture 265) subhujah: He who has graceful arms 266) durdurdharah: He who cannot be known by great yogis 267) vaagmee: He who is eloquent in speech 268) mahendrah: The lord of Indra 269) vasudah: He who gives all wealth 270) vasuh: He who is Wealth 271) naika-roopo: He who has unlimited forms 272) brihad-roopah: Vast, of infinite dimensions 273) shipivishtah: The presiding deity of the sun 274) prakaashanah: He who illuminates 275) ojas-tejo-dyutidharah: The possessor of vitality, effulgence and beauty 276) prakaashaatmaa: The effulgent self 277) prataapanah: Thermal energy; one who heats 278) riddhah: Full of prosperity 279) spashtaaksharo: One who is indicated by OM 280) mantrah: The nature of the Vedic mantras 281) chandraamshuh: The rays of the moon 282) bhaaskara-dyutih: The effulgence of the sun 283) amritaamsoodbhavo: The moon who gives flavor to vegetables 284) bhaanuh: Self-effulgent 285) shashabindhuh: The moon who has a rabbit-like spot 286) sureshvarah: A person of extreme charity 287) aushadham: Medicine 288) jagatas-setuh: A bridge across the material energy 289) satya-dharma-paraakramah: One who champions heroically for truth and righteousness 290) bhoota-bhavya-bhavan-naathah: The Lord of past, present and future 291) pavanah: The air that fills the universe 292) paavanah: He who gives life-sustaining power to air 293) analah: Fire 294) kaamahaa: He who destroys all desires 295) kaamakrit: He who fulfills all desires 296) kaantah: He who is of enchanting form 297) kaamah: The beloved 298) kaamapradah: He who supplies desired objects 299) prabhuh: The Lord 300) yugaadi-krit: The creator of the yugas 301) yugaavartah The law behind time 302) naikamaayah: He whose forms are endless and varied 303) mahaashanah: He who eats up everything 304) adrishyah: Imperceptible 305) vyaktaroopah: He who is perceptible to the yogi 306) sahasrajit: He who vanquishes thousands 307) anantajit: Ever-victorious 308) ishtah: He who is invoked through Vedic rituals 309) visishtah: The noblest and most sacred 310) sishteshtah: The greatest beloved 311) shikhandee: He who wears a peacock feather 312) nahushah: He who binds all with maya 313) vrishah: He who is dharma 314) krodhahaa: He who destroys anger 315) krodhakrit-kartaa: He who generates anger against the lower tendency 316) visvabaahuh: He whose hand is in everything 317) maheedharah: The support of the earth 318) achyutah: He who undergoes no changes 319) prathitah: He who exists pervading all 320) praanah: The prana in all living creatures 321) praanadah: He who gives prana 322) vaasavaanujah: The brother of Indra 323) apaam-nidhih: Treasure of waters (the ocean) 324) adhishthaanam: The substratum of the entire universe 325) apramattah: He who never makes a wrong judgement 326) pratishthitah: He who has no cause 327) skandah: He whose glory is expressed through Subrahmanya 328) skanda-dharah: Upholder of withering righteousness 329) dhuryah: Who carries out creation etc without hitch 330) varadah: He who fulfills boons 331) vaayuvaahanah: Controller of winds 332) vaasudevah: Dwelling in all creatures although not affected by that condition 333) brihat-bhaanuh: He who illumines the world with the rays of the sun and moon 334) aadidevah: The primary source of everything 335) purandarah: Destroyer of cities 336) ashokah: He who has no sorrow 337) taaranah: He who enables others to cross 338) taarah: He who saves 339) shoorah: The valiant 340) shaurih: He who incarnated in the dynasty of Shoora 341) janeshvarah: The Lord of the people 342) anukoolah: Well-wisher of everyone 343) sataavarttah: He who takes infinite forms 344) padmee: He who holds a lotus 345) padmanibhekshanah: Lotus-eyed 346) padmanaabhah: He who has a lotus-navel 347) aravindaakshah: He who has eyes as beautiful as the lotus 348) padmagarbhah: He who is being meditated upon in the lotus of the heart 349) shareerabhrit: He who sustains all bodies 350) maharddhi: One who has great prosperity 351) riddhah: He who has expanded Himself as the universe 352) Vriddhaatmaa: The ancient self 353) mahaakshah: The great-eyed 354) garudadhvajah: One who has Garuda on His flag 355) atulah: Incomparable 356) sharabhah: One who dwells and shines forth through the bodies 357) bheemah: The terrible 358) samayajnah: One whose worship is nothing more than keeping an equal vision of the mind by the devotee 359) havirharih: The receiver of all oblation 360) sarva-lakshana-lakshanyah: Known through all proofs 361) lakshmeevaan: The consort of Laksmi 362) samitinjayah: Ever-victorious 363) viksharah: Imperishable 364) rohitah: The fish incarnation 365) maargah: The path 366) hetuh: The cause 367) daamodarah: Whose stomach is marked with three lines 368) sahah: All-enduring 369) maheedharah: The bearer of the earth 370) mahaabhaago: He who gets the greates share in every Yajna 371) vegavaan: He who is swift 372) amitaashanah: Of endless appetite 373) udbhavah: The originator 374) kshobhanah: The agitator 375) devah: He who revels 376) shreegarbhah: He in whom are all glories 377) parameshvarah: The Supreme Lord 378) karanam: The instrument 379) kaaranam: The cause 380) kartaa: The doer 381) vikartaa: Creator of the endless varieties that make up the universe 382) gahanah: The unknowable 383) guhah: He who dwells in the cave of the heart 384) vyavasaayah: Resolute 385) vyavasthaanah: The substratum 386) samsthaanah: The ultimate authority 387) sthaanadah: He who confers the right abode 388) dhruvah: The changeless in the midst of changes 389) pararddhih: He who has supreme manifestations 390) paramaspashtah: The extremely vivid 391) tushtah: One who is contented with a very simple offering 392) pushtah: One who is ever-full 393) shubhekshanah: All-auspicious gaze 394) raamah: One who is most handsome 395) viraamah: The abode of perfect-rest 396) virajo: Passionless 397) maargah: The path 398) neyah: The guide 399) nayah: One who leads 400) anayah: One who has no leader 401) veerah: The valiant 402) shaktimataam-shresthah: The best among the powerful 403) dharmah: The law of being 404) dharmaviduttamah: The highest among men of realisation 405) vaikunthah: One who prevents men from straying on wrong paths 406) purushah: One who dwells in all bodies 407) praanah: Life 408) praanadah: Giver of life 409) pranavah: He who is praised by the gods 410) prituh: The expanded 411) hiranyagarbhah: The creator 412) shatrughnah: The destroyer of enemies 413) vyaaptah: The pervader 414) vaayuh: The air 415) adhokshajah: One whose vitality never flows downwards 416) rituh: The seasons 417) sudarshanah: He whose meeting is auspicious 418) kaalah: He who judges and punishes beings 419) parameshthee: One who is readily available for experience within the heart 420) parigrahah: The receiver 421) ugrah: The terrible 422) samvatsarah: The year 423) dakshah: The smart 424) vishraamah: The resting place 425) vishva-dakshinah: The most skilful and efficient 426) vistaarah: The extension 427) sthaavarah-sthaanuh: The firm and motionless 428) pramaanam: The proof 429) beejamavyayam: The Immutable Seed 430) arthah: He who is worshiped by all 431) anarthah: One to whom there is nothing yet to be fulfilled 432) mahaakoshah: He who has got around him great sheaths 433) mahaabhogah: He who is of the nature of enjoyment 434) mahaadhanah: He who is supremely rich 435) anirvinnah: He who has no discontent 436) sthavishthah: One who is supremely huge 437) a-bhooh: One who has no birth 438) dharma-yoopah: The post to which all dharma is tied 439) mahaa-makhah: The great sacrificer 440) nakshatranemir: The nave of the stars 441) nakshatree: The Lord of the stars (the moon) 442) kshamah: He who is supremely efficient in all undertakings 443) kshaamah: He who ever remains without any scarcity 444) sameehanah: One whose desires are auspicious 445) yajnah: One who is of the nature of yajna 446) ijyah: He who is fit to be invoked through yajna 447) mahejyah: One who is to be most worshiped 448) kratuh: The animal-sacrifice 449) satram: Protector of the good 450) sataam-gatih: Refuge of the good 451) sarvadarshee: All-knower 452) vimuktaatmaa: The ever-liberated self 453) sarvajno: Omniscient 454) jnaanamuttamam: The Supreme Knowledge 455) suvratah: He who ever-perfoeming the pure vow 456) sumukhah: One who has a charming face 457) sookshmah: The subtlest 458) sughoshah: Of auspicious sound 459) sukhadah: Giver of happiness 460) suhrit: Friend of all creatures 461) manoharah: The stealer of the mind 462) jita-krodhah: One who has conquered anger 463) veerabaahur: Having mighty arms 464) vidaaranah: One who splits asunder 465) svaapanah: One who puts people to sleep 466) svavashah: He who has everything under His control 467) vyaapee: All-pervading 468) naikaatmaa: Many souled 469) naikakarmakrit: One who does many actions 470) vatsarah: The abode 471) vatsalah: The supremely affectionate 472) vatsee: The father 473) ratnagarbhah: The jewel-wombed 474) dhaneshvarah: The Lord of wealth 475) dharmagub: One who protects dharma 476) dharmakrit: One who acts according to dharma 477) dharmee: The supporter of dharma 478) sat: existence 479) asat: illusion 480) ksharam: He who appears to perish 481) aksharam: Imperishable 482) avijnaataa: The non-knower (The knower being the conditioned soul within the body) 483) sahasraamshur: The thousand-rayed 484) vidhaataa: All supporter 485) kritalakshanah: One who is famous for His qualities 486) gabhastinemih: The hub of the universal wheel 487) sattvasthah: Situated in sattva 488) simhah: The lion 489) bhoota-maheshvarah: The great lord of beings 490) aadidevah: The first deity 491) mahaadevah: The great deity 492) deveshah: The Lord of all devas 493) devabhrit-guruh: Advisor of Indra 494) uttarah: He who lifts us from the ocean of samsara 495) gopatih: The shepherd 496) goptaa: The protector 497) jnaanagamyah: One who is experienced through pure knowledge 498) puraatanah: He who was even before time 499) shareera-bhootabhrit: One who nourishes the nature from which the bodies came 500) bhoktaa: The enjoyer 501) kapeendrah: Lord of the monkeys (Rama) 502) bhooridakshinah: He who gives away large gifts 503) somapah: One who takes Soma in the yajnas 504) amritapah: One who drinks the nectar 505) somah: One who as the moon nourishes plants 506) purujit: One who has conquered numerous enemies 507) purusattamah: The greatest of the great 508) vinayah: He who humiliates those who are unrighteous 509) jayah: The victorious 510) satyasandhah: Of truthful resolution 511) daashaarhah: One who was born in the Dasarha race 512) saatvataam-patih: The Lord of the Satvatas 513) jeevah: One who functions as the ksetrajna 514) vinayitaa-saakshee: The witness of modesty 515) mukundah: The giver of liberation 516) amitavikramah: Of immeasurable prowess 517) ambho-nidhir: The substratum of the four types of beings 518) anantaatmaa: The infinite self 519) mahodadhishayah: One who rests on the great ocean 520) antakah: The death 521) ajah: Unborn 522) mahaarhah: One who deserves the highest worship 523) svaabhaavyah: Ever rooted in the nature of His own self 524) jitaamitrah: One who has conquered all enemies 525) pramodanah: Ever-blissful 526) aanandah: A mass of pure bliss 527) nandanah: One who makes others blissful 528) nandah: Free from all worldly pleasures 529) satyadharmaa: One who has in Himself all true dharmas 530) trivikramah: One who took three steps 531) maharshih kapilaachaaryah: He who incarnated as Kapila, the great sage 532) kritajnah: The knower of the creation 533) medineepatih: The Lord of the earth 534) tripadah: One who has taken three steps 535) tridashaadhyaksho: The Lord of the three states of consciousness 536) mahaashringah: Great-horned (Matsya) 537) kritaantakrit: Destroyer of the creation 538) mahaavaraaho: The great boar 539) govindah: One who is known through Vedanta 540) sushenah: He who has a charming army 541) kanakaangadee: Wearer of bright-as-gold armlets 542) guhyo: The mysterious 543) gabheerah: The unfathomable 544) gahano: Impenetrable 545) guptah: The well-concealed 546) chakra-gadaadharah: Bearer of the disc and mace 547) vedhaah: Creator of the universe 548) svaangah: One with well-proportioned limbs 549) ajitah: Vanquished by none 550) krishnah: Dark-complexioned 551) dridhah: The firm 552) sankarshanochyutah: He who absorbs the whole creation into His nature and never falls away from that nature 553) varunah: One who sets on the horizon (Sun) 554) vaarunah: The son of Varuna (Vasistha or Agastya) 555) vrikshah: The tree 556) pushkaraakshah: Lotus eyed 557) mahaamanaah: Great-minded 558) bhagavaan: One who possesses six opulences 559) bhagahaa: One who destroys the six opulences during pralaya 560) aanandee: One who gives delight 561) vanamaalee: One who wears a garland of forest flowers 562) halaayudhah: One who has a plough as His weapon 563) aadityah: Son of Aditi 564) jyotiraadityah: The resplendence of the sun 565) sahishnuh: One who calmly endures duality 566) gatisattamah: The ultimate refuge for all devotees 567) sudhanvaa: One who has Shaarnga 568) khanda-parashur: One who holds an axe 569) daarunah: Merciless towards the unrighteous 570) dravinapradah: One who lavishly gives wealth 571) divah-sprik: Sky-reaching 572) sarvadrik-vyaaso: One who creates many men of wisdom 573) vaachaspatir-ayonijah: One who is the master of all vidyas and who is unborn through a womb 574) trisaamaa: One who is glorified by Devas, Vratas and Saamans 575) saamagah: The singer of the sama songs 576) saama: The Sama Veda 577) nirvaanam: All-bliss 578) bheshajam: Medicine 579) bhishak: Physician 580) samnyaasa-krit: Institutor of sannyasa 581) samah: Calm 582) shaantah: Peaceful within 583) nishthaa: Abode of all beings 584) shaantih: One whose very nature is peace 585) paraayanam: The way to liberation 586) shubhaangah: One who has the most beautiful form 587) shaantidah: Giver of peace 588) shrashtaa: Creator of all beings 589) kumudah: He who delights in the earth 590) kuvaleshayah: He who reclines in the waters 591) gohitah: One who does welfare for cows 592) gopatih: Husband of the earth 593) goptaa: Protector of the universe 594) vrishabhaaksho: One whose eyes rain fulfilment of desires 595) vrishapriyah: One who delights in dharma 596) anivartee: One who never retreats 597) nivrittaatmaa: One who is fully restrained from all sense indulgences 598) samksheptaa: The involver 599) kshemakrit: Doer of good 600) shivah: Auspiciousness 601) shreevatsa-vakshaah: One who has sreevatsa on His chest 602) shrevaasah: Abode of Sree 603) shreepatih: Lord of Laksmi 604) shreemataam varah: The best among glorious 605) shreedah: Giver of opulence 606) shreeshah: The Lord of Sree 607) shreenivaasah: One who dwells in the good people 608) shreenidhih: The treasure of Sree 609) shreevibhaavanah: Distributor of Sree 610) shreedharah: Holder of Sree 611) shreekarah: One who gives Sree 612) shreyah: Liberation 613) shreemaan: Possessor of Sree 614) loka-trayaashrayah: Shelter of the three worlds 615) svakshah: Beautiful-eyed 616) svangah: Beautiful-limbed 617) shataanandah: Of infinite varieties and joys 618) nandih: Infinite bliss 619) jyotir-ganeshvarah: Lord of the luminaries in the cosmos 620) vijitaatmaa: One who has conquered the sense organs 621) vidheyaatmaa: One who is ever available for the devotees to command in love 622) sat-keertih: One of pure fame 623) chinnasamshayah: One whose doubts are ever at rest 624) udeernah: The great transcendent 625) sarvatah-chakshuh: One who has eyes everywhere 626) aneeshah: One who has none to Lord over Him 627) shaashvata-sthirah: One who is eternal and stable 628) bhooshayah: One who rested on the ocean shore (Rama) 629) bhooshanah: One who adorns the world 630) bhootih: One who is pure existence 631) vishokah: Sorrowless 632) shoka-naashanah: Destroyer of sorrows 633) archishmaan: The effulgent 634) architah: One who is constantly worshipped by His devotees 635) kumbhah: The pot within whom everything is contained 636) vishuddhaatmaa: One who has the purest soul 637) vishodhanah: The great purifier 638) anniruddhah: He who is invincible by any enemy 639) apratirathah: One who has no enemies to threaten Him 640) pradyumnah: Very rich 641) amitavikramah: Of immeasurable prowess 642) kaalanemi-nihaa: Slayer of Kalanemi 643) veerah: The heroic victor 644) shauri: One who always has invincible prowess 645) shoora-janeshvarah: Lord of the valiant 646) trilokaatmaa: The self of the three worlds 647) trilokeshah: The Lord of the three worlds 648) keshavah: One whose rays illumine the cosmos 649) keshihaa: Killer of Kesi 650) harih: The destroyer 651) kaamadevah: The beloved Lord 652) kaamapaalah: The fulfiller of desires 653) kaamee: One who has fulfilled all His desires 654) kaantah: Of enchanting form 655) kritaagamah: The author of the agama scriptures 656) anirdeshya-vapuh: Of Indescribable form 657) vishnuh: All-pervading 658) veerah: The courageous 659) anantah: Endless 660) dhananjayah: One who gained wealth through conquest 661) brahmanyah: Protector of Brahman (anything related to Narayana) 662) brahmakrit: One who acts in Brahman 663) brahmaa: Creator 664) brahma: Biggest 665) brahma-vivardhanah: One who increases the Brahman 666) brahmavid: One who knows Brahman 667) braahmanah: One who has realised Brahman 668) brahmee: One who is with Brahma 669) brahmajno: One who knows the nature of Brahman 670) braahmana-priyah: Dear to the brahmanas 671) mahaakramo: Of great step 672) mahaakarmaa: One who performs great deeds 673) mahaatejaah: One of great resplendence 674) mahoragah: The great serpent 675) mahaakratuh: The great sacrifice 676) mahaayajvaa: One who performed great yajnas 677) mahaayajnah: The great yajna 678) mahaahavih: The great offering 679) stavyah: One who is the object of all praise 680) stavapriyah: One who is invoked through prayer 681) stotram: The hymn 682) stutih: The act of praise 683) stotaa: One who adores or praises 684) ranapriyah: Lover of battles 685) poornah: The complete 686) poorayitaa: The fulfiller 687) punyah: The truly holy 688) punya-keertir: Of Holy fame 689) anaamayah: One who has no diseases 690) manojavah: Swift as the mind 691) teerthakaro: The teacher of the tirthas 692) vasuretaah: He whose essence is golden 693) vasupradah: The free-giver of wealth 694) vasupradah: The giver of salvation, the greatest wealth 695) vaasudevo: The son of Vasudeva 696) vasuh: The refuge for all 697) vasumanaah: One who is attentive to everything 698) havih: The oblation 699) sadgatih: The goal of good people 700) satkritih: One who is full of Good actions 701) satta: One without a second 702) sadbhootih: One who has rich glories 703) satparaayanah: The Supreme goal for the good 704) shoorasenah: One who has heroic and valiant armies 705) yadu-shresthah: The best among the Yadava clan 706) sannivaasah: The abode of the good 707) suyaamunah: One who attended by the people who dwell on the banks of Yamuna 708) bhootaavaaso: The dwelling place of the elements 709) vaasudevah: One who envelops the world with Maya 710) sarvaasunilayah: The abode of all life energies 711) analah: One of unlimited wealth, power and glory 712) darpahaa: The destroyer of pride in evil-minded people 713) darpadah: One who creates pride, or an urge to be the best, among the righteous 714) driptah: One whio is drunk with Infinite bliss 715) durdharah: The object of contemplation 716) athaaparaajitah: The unvanquished 717) vishvamoortih: Of the form of the entire Universe 718) mahaamortir: The great form 719) deeptamoortir: Of resplendent form 720) a-moortirmaan: Having no form 721) anekamoortih: Multi-formed 722) avyaktah: Unmanifeset 723) shatamoortih: Of many forms 724) shataananah: Many-faced 725) ekah: The one 726) naikah: The many 727) savah: The nature of the sacrifice 728) kah: One who is of the nature of bliss 729) kim: What (the one to be inquired into) 730) yat: Which 731) tat: That 732) padam-anuttamam: The unequalled state of perfection 733) lokabandhur: Friend of the world 734) lokanaathah: Lord of the world 735) maadhavah: Born in the family of Madhu 736) bhaktavatsalah: One who loves His devotees 737) suvarna-varnah: Golden-coloured 738) hemaangah: One who has limbs of gold 739) varaangah: With beautiful limbs 740) chandanaangadee: One who has attractive armlets 741) veerahaa: Destroyer of valiant heroes 742) vishama: Unequalled 743) shoonyah: The void 744) ghritaaseeh: One who has no need for good wishes 745) acalah: Non-moving 746) chalah: Moving 747) amaanee: Without false vanity 748) maanadah: One who causes, by His maya, false identification with the body 749) maanyah: One who is to be honoured 750) lokasvaamee: Lord of the universe 751) trilokadhrik: One who is the support of all the three worlds 752) sumedhaa: One who has pure intelligence 753) medhajah: Born out of sacrifices 754) dhanyah: Fortunate 755) satyamedhah: One whose intelligence never fails 756) dharaadharah: The sole support of the earth 757) tejovrisho: One who showers radiance 758) dyutidharah: One who bears an effulgent form 759) sarva-shastra-bhritaam-varah: The best among those who wield weapons 760) pragrahah: Receiver of worship 761) nigrahah: The killer 762) vyagrah: One who is ever engaged in fulfilling the devotee's desires 763) naikashringah: One who has many horns 764) gadaagrajah: One who is invoked through mantra 765) chaturmoortih: Four-formed 766) chaturbaahuh: Four-handed 767) chaturvyoohah: One who expresses Himself as the dynamic centre in the four vyoohas 768) chaturgatih: The ultimate goal of all four varnas and asramas 769) chaturaatmaa: Clear-minded 770) chaturbhaavas: The source of the four 771) chatur-vedavid: Knower of all four vedas 772) ekapaat: One-footed (BG 10.42) 773) samaavartah: The efficient turner 774) nivrittaatmaa: One whose mind is turned away from sense indulgence 775) durjayah: The invincible 776) duratikramah: One who is difficult to be disobeyed 777) durlabhah: One who obtained with effort 778) durgamah: One who is realised with great effort 779) durgah: Not easy to storm into 780) duraavaasah: Not easy to lodge 781) duraarihaa: Slayer of the asuras 782) shubhaangah: One with enchanting limbs 783) lokasaarangah: One who understands the universe 784) sutantuh: Beautifully expanded 785) tantu-vardhanah: One who sustains the continuity of the drive for the family 786) indrakarmaa: One who always performs gloriously auspicious actions 787) mahaakarmaa: One who accomplishes great acts 788) kritakarmaa: One who has fulfilled his acts 789) kritaagamah: Author of the Vedas 790) udbhavah: The ultimate source 791) sundarah: Of unrivalled beauty 792) sundah: Of great mercy 793) ratna-naabhah: Of beautiful navel 794) sulochanah: One who has the most enchanting eyes 795) arkah: One who is in the form of the sun 796) vaajasanah: The giver of food 797) shringee: The horned one 798) jayantah: The conquerer of all enemies 799) sarvavij-jayee: One who is at once omniscient and victorious 800) suvarna-binduh: With limbs radiant like gold 801) akshobhyah: One who is ever unruffled 802) sarva-vaageeshvareshvarah: Lord of the Lord of speech 803) mahaahradah: One who is like a great refreshing swimming pool 804) mahaagartah: The great chasm 805) mahaabhootah: The great being 806) mahaanidhih: The great abode 807) kumudah: One who gladdens the earth 808) kundarah: The one who lifted the earth 809) kundah: One who is as attractive as Kunda flowers 810) parjanyah: He who is similar to rain-bearing clouds 811) paavanah: One who ever purifies 812) anilah: One who never slips 813) amritaashah: One whose desires are never fruitless 814) amritavapuh: He whose form is immortal 815) sarvajna: Omniscient 816) sarvato-mukhah: One who has His face turned everywhere 817) sulabhah: One who is readily available 818) suvratah: One who has taken the most auspicious forms 819) siddhah: One who is perfection 820) shatrujit: One who is ever victorious over His hosts of enemies 821) shatrutaapanah: The scorcher of enemies 822) nyagrodhah: The one who veils Himself with Maya 823) udumbarah: Nourishment of all living creatures 824) ashvattas: Tree of life 825) chaanooraandhra-nishoodanah: The slayer of Canura 826) sahasraarchih: He who has thousands of rays 827) saptajihvah: He who expresses himself as the seven tongues of fire (Types of agni) 828) saptaidhaah: The seven effulgences in the flames 829) saptavaahanah: One who has a vehicle of seven horses (sun) 830) amoortih: Formless 831) anaghah: Sinless 832) acintyo: Inconceivable 833) bhayakrit: Giver of fear 834) bhayanaashanah: Destroyer of fear 835) anuh: The subtlest 836) brihat: The greatest 837) krishah: Delicate, lean 838) sthoolah: One who is the fattest 839) gunabhrit: One who supports 840) nirgunah: Without any properties 841) mahaan: The mighty 842) adhritah: Without support 843) svadhritah: Self-supported 844) svaasyah: One who has an effulgent face 845) praagvamshah: One who has the most ancient ancestry 846) vamshavardhanah: He who multiplies His family of descendents 847) bhaarabhrit: One who carries the load of the universe 848) kathitah: One who is glorified in all scriptures 849) yogee: One who can be realised through yoga 850) yogeeshah: The king of yogis 851) sarvakaamadah: One who fulfils all desires of true devotees 852) aashramah: Haven 853) shramanah: One who persecutes the worldly people 854) kshaamah: One who destroys everything 855) suparnah: The golden leaf (Vedas) BG 15.1 856) vaayuvaahanah: The mover of the winds 857) dhanurdharah: The wielder of the bow 858) dhanurvedah: One who declared the science of archery 859) dandah: One who punishes the wicked 860) damayitaa: The controller 861) damah: Beautitude in the self 862) aparaajitah: One who cannot be defeated 863) sarvasahah: One who carries the entire Universe 864) aniyantaa: One who has no controller 865) niyamah: One who is not under anyone's laws 866) ayamah: One who knows no death 867) sattvavaan: One who is full of exploits and courage 868) saattvikah: One who is full of sattvic qualities 869) satyah: Truth 870) satya-dharma-paraayanah: One who is the very abode of truth and dharma 871) abhipraayah: One who is faced by all seekers marching to the infinite 872) priyaarhah: One who deserves all our love 873) arhah: One who deserves to be worshiped 874) priyakrit: One who is ever-obliging in fulfilling our wishes 875) preetivardhanah: One who increases joy in the devotee's heart 876) vihaayasa-gatih: One who travels in space 877) jyotih: Self-effulgent 878) suruchih: Whose desire manifests as the universe 879) hutabhuk: One who enjoys all that is offered in yajna 880) vibhuh: All-pervading 881) ravih: One who dries up everything 882) virochanah: One who shines in different forms 883) sooryah: The one source from where everything is born 884) savitaa: The one who brings forth the Universe from Himself 885) ravilochanah: One whose eye is the sun 886) anantah: Endless 887) hutabhuk: One who accepts oblations 888) bhoktaaA: One who enjoys 889) sukhadah: Giver of bliss to those who are liberated 890) naikajah: One who is born many times 891) agrajah: The first-born 892) anirvinnah: One who feels no disappointment 893) sadaamarshee: One who forgives the trespasses of His devotees 894) lokaadhishthaanam: The substratum of the universe 895) adbhutah: Wonderful 896) sanaat: The beginningless and endless factor 897) sanaatanatamah: The most ancient 898) kapilah: The great sage Kapila 899) kapih: One who drinks water 900) apyayah: The one in whom the universe merges 901) svastidah: Giver of Svasti 902) svastikrit: One who robs all auspiciousness 903) svasti: One who is the source of all auspiciouness 904) svastibhuk: One who constantly enjoys auspiciousness 905) svastidakshinah: Distributor of auspiciousness 906) araudrah: One who has no negative emotions or urges 907) kundalee: One who wears shark earrings 908) chakree: Holder of the chakra 909) vikramee: The most daring 910) oorjita-shaasanah: One who commands with His hand 911) shabdaatigah: One who transcends all words 912) shabdasahah: One who allows Himself to be invoked by Vedic declarations 913) shishirah: The cold season, winter 914) sharvaree-karah: Creator of darkness 915) akroorah: Never cruel 916) peshalah: One who is supremely soft 917) dakshah: Prompt 918) dakshinah: The most liberal 919) kshaminaam-varah: One who has the greatest amount of patience with sinners 920) vidvattamah: One who has the greatest wisdom 921) veetabhayah: One with no fear 922) punya-shravana-keertanah: The hearing of whose glory causes holiness to grow 923) uttaaranah: One who lifts us out of the ocean of change 924) dushkritihaa: Destroyer of bad actions 925) punyah: Supremely pure 926) duh-svapna-naashanah: One who destroys all bad dreams 927) veerahaa: One who ends the passage from womb to womb 928) rakshanah: Protector of the universe 929) santah: One who is expressed through saintly men 930) jeevanah: The life spark in all creatures 931) paryavasthitah: One who dwells everywhere 932) anantaroopah: One of infinite forms 933) anantashreeh: Full of infinite glories 934) jitamanyuh: One who has no anger 935) bhayapahah: One who destroys all fears 936) chaturashrah: One who deals squarely 937) gabheeraatmaa: Too deep to be fathomed 938) vidishah: One who is unique in His giving 939) vyaadishah: One who is unique in His commanding power 940) dishah: One who advises and gives knowledge 941) anaadih: One who is the first cause 942) bhoor-bhuvo: The substratum of the earth 943) lakshmeeh: The glory of the universe 944) suveerah: One who moves through various ways 945) ruchiraangadah: One who wears resplendent shoulder caps 946) jananah: He who delivers all living creatures 947) jana-janmaadir: The cause of the birth of all creatures 948) bheemah: Terrible form 949) bheema-paraakramah: One whose prowess is fearful to His enemies 950) aadhaaranilayah: The fundamental sustainer 951) adhaataa: Above whom there is no other to command 952) pushpahaasah: He who shines like an opening flower 953) prajaagarah: Ever-awakened 954) oordhvagah: One who is on top of everything 955) satpathaachaarah: One who walks the path of truth 956) praanadah: Giver of life 957) pranavah: Omkara 958) panah: The supreme universal manager 959) pramaanam: He whose form is the Vedas 960) praananilayah: He in whom all prana is established 961) praanibhrit: He who rules over all pranas 962) praanajeevanah: He who maintains the life-breath in all living creatures 963) tattvam: The reality 964) tattvavit: One who has realised the reality 965) ekaatmaa: The one self 966) janma-mrityu-jaraatigah: One who knows no birth, death or old age in Himself 967) bhoor-bhuvah svas-taruh: The tree of bhur, bhuvah and svah 968) taarah: One who helps all to cross over 969) savitaa: The father of all 970) prapitaamahah: The father of the father of beings (Brahma) 971) yajnah: One whose very nature is yajna 972) yajnapatih: The Lord of all yajnas 973) yajvaa: The one who performs yajna 974) yajnaangah: One whose limbs are the things employed in yajna 975) yajnavaahanah: One who fulfils yajnas in complete 976) yajnabhrid: The ruler of the yajanas 977) yajnakrit: One who performs yajna 978) yajnee: Enjoyer of yajnas 979) yajnabhuk: Receiver of all that is offered 980) yajnasaadhanah: One who fulfils all yajnas 981) yajnaantakrit: One who performs the concluding act of the yajna 982) yajnaguhyam: The person to be realised by yajna 983) annam: One who is food 984) annaadah: One who eats the food 985) aatmayonih: The uncaused cause 986) svayamjaatah: Self-born 987) vaikhaanah: The one who cut through the earth 988) saamagaayanah: One who sings the sama songs 989) devakee-nandanah: Son of Devaki 990) srashtaa: Creator 991) kshiteeshah: The Lord of the earth 992) paapa-naashanah: Destroyer of sin 993) samkha-bhrit: One who has the divine Pancajanya 994) nandakee: One who holds the Nandaka sword 995) chakree: Carrier of Sudarsana 996) shaarnga-dhanvaa: One who aims His shaarnga bow 997) gadaadharah: Carrier of Kaumodakee club 998) rathaanga-paanih: One who has the wheel of a chariot as His weapon 999) akshobhyah: One who cannot be annoyed by anyone 1000) sarva-praharanaayudhah: He who has all implements for all kinds of assault and fight
This is a divya desa which is not in this world. This is the place to which every vaishnavite would like to go on attaining moksha. This is varyingly referred to as Tiru Nadu, Thiru Paramapada and Paramakasam. It is said that the people staying in this Paramapada i.e. the Muktatmas will look like God in their physical attributes. They will be spending all the time rendering service to God (Kainkaryam).
Perumal who presides over this divya desa is known as Paramapathanathan. He is seen in a sitting posture facing south. The thayar is known as Peria Pirattiar. The theerthas here are Viraja nadhi and Iramadha pushkarini. The vimana under which God is seated is known as Anantanga vimana.
As stated earlier, no muktatma who goes to Paramapada ever returns to tell us what the place looks like. However, there are various religious literature and pasurams sung by the Alwars which enable us to get an idea of this place. In this chapter, I propose to briefly describe Vaikuntha as related by Nammalwar in his "Soozh visumbu adimukil" and by Pillai Lokacharya in "Archi radhi gathi" and by Ramanuja in "Vaikunta gadyam"
The Description of Vaikuntha in Sri Vaikuntha Gadya by Sri Ramanuja
Let us now look Vaikuntha through the great Ramanuja's eyes. Vaikuntha gadya has six sub sections. In the third, the acharya describes the archiradhi path taken by the muktatma to reach Vaikuntha and the glorious beauty of Vaaikuntha itself. In the following paragraphs, a faithful account of the describption of Vaikuntha and the Lord as found in Sri Vaikuntha gadya will be given.
Vaikuntha is described as a divya loka i.e. a divine land of bliss. It is said to be beyond the comprehension of even Brahma and other devas. They also cannot describe that place adequately. Brahma has a comprehension which is far above that of the human beings. But even such a great Brahma, the Creator cannot comprehend the bliss of this Paramapada. Not only Brahma, even Shiva and these great souls and other devas cannot comprehend the greatness of Vaikuntha. They cannot comprehend its area i.e. size neither can they comprehend its wealth. The greatness of this land is beyond the comprehension of even Sanaka and other great rishis. It is vast. It is known as Parama vyoma, Paramapada and Paramakasa. It lies far beyond the anda which contains the fourteen worlds. Each anda consists of fourteen lokas seven above and seven below the earth.
The anda is covered by avaranas which are water, fire, wind, akasa, ahankara, mahath and avyaktha. Beyond all these lies Vaikuntha which is eternal and does not charnge at all. It is absolutely clear (prakriti mandala). Nothing is hidden. In Srivaikuntha, kainkarya to the Lord is eternal and continuous. The laws of karma have no bearing in that divya loka. It is full of nityas i.e. eternally free souls who are enjoying the company of Perumal for ever without any interruption. The number of such nitya in Vaikuntha is countless. Their only job is Bhagavadanubhavam i.e. enjoyment of Perumal. They are great persons from whom even the Lord does not like to be separated even for a moment. Devotion and service are their only job.
The wealth of such a land of bliss is then described. It is said that Vaikuntha is "divya avarana sata sahasra vrite" i.e. it is surrounded by hundreds and thousands of fortifications i.e. avarana. A question may be raised as to why the great God needs avarana i.e. fortifications when He Himself is the sarvarakshaka. Sri Peria Vachan Pillai, the great commentator says that the avaranas are there because of the needless though understandable fear and caution of the great devotees who are residing in Vaikuntha and who want to protect their beloved God from any possible danger! It is similar to the situation when Perialwar sang Pallandu to the great Lord Himself fearing that evil eye may be cast on the divine beauty of Perumal and Goddess who came to watch the glory of the victorious march of Perialvar himself.
The beauty of Vaikuntha is then described. The place is full of beautiful kalpaka trees i.e. "divya kalpakatarupesobhite". The central area where the Lord is seated is surrounded by innumerable gardens which are the playground for Vaikunthanatha and His consorts. It is very vast (athipramane) vast in expanse. In such a residence resides the Perumal. The hall of audience of Perumal is studded with different varieties of gems (vichitra ratnamaye). It is a special hall i.e. (divya sthana mantape). It is bright and effulgent with innumerable pillars of precious stones (divya rathna sthamba sata sahasra katibhiroopa sobhite). The floor is paved with varieties of precious gems (divya nanarathna kruta sthala vichitrite). It is having numerous embroidered vithanams, canopies, merkattis, etc. (i.e. divya alankara alankrute).
Having described the hall of audience, Ramanuja then describes the gardens which are surrounding that hall of audience. It is full of multicoloured sweet smelling flowers - flowers which have fallen from the trees, flowers which are still falling from the trees. They are of different colours and sweet fragrance (nanaghanda varnaiah). The flowers which decorate the place are described as divya pushpa. Thus, the souls which live there are divya alankaram, the pillars there are divya rathna sthambas, divya pushpams are there, everything about it is divya. The gardens consist of trees like parijatha, Harichandana, kalpaka. The gardens have a large number of resting places i.e. mandapa, which are again decorated with flower seats, precious stones which are wonderful to look at, and are places fit to enjoy and are used constantly by the residents there.
There are a number of sporting hills. Some gardens are exclusively reserved for the Lord. Some for the consorts of the Lord, while some are for the other residents of Vaikuntha. All the gardens are full of beautiful and sweet singing birds like parrots, cuckoos, white swans and colourful peacocks. The tanks, ponds and the lakes surrounding the divya mandapa are also beautiful. The steps leading to those water resources are studded with pearls, corals and other gems. The water in these tanks and lakes are almost like amrith (i.e. divyamala amruth rasodakaithi).
In that divya mandapa, the God is seated on Adisesha. That flower bedecked mandapa gives great bliss. It is absolutely comfortable (nirasta athisaya anandaika rasataya cha). It is limiltess. It is filled with divine music by the humming of the bees which are happily sucking the honey from a variety of flowers. The gentle breeze which blows in that place is intoxicating with the fragrance gathered from chandan, ahil, karpoora and other divine flowers. In such a breathtakingly beautiful environment, the Lord is seated on His divine seat viz. Anantha.
Jamanuja then describes the Lord's consorts and attendants serving Him. He says that to that divya loka Mahalakshmi adds Her brilliance. Her very presence illuminates and gladdens all the residents of Vaikuntha. She commands Adisesha, Vishvaksena and others residing in Vaikuntha to render such services to the Lord as circumstances require. She is a befitting match to Perumal with all Her qualities and beauty.
Ramanuja then describes the Lord, His various aspects, the jewels that He is wearing etc. The Lord has two wide eyes which look like freshly blossomed lotus flowers. He resembles the clear blue cloud (swacha nila jeemuta sankasam). He is blemishless (athi nirmalya). He is very cool (athi seethalaya). He is young and delicate (athi komalaya, nitya youvanaya). He has the brilliance of a gem. His divine wonderful nature is beyond the comprehension of one's mind. He is an ocean fo nectar (achinthya divya, arpuda nitya yowana lavanyamaya amrutha sagara.) The curls of hair of Perumal are playing on a soft tender forehead which is moist with mild sweat.
The beautiful, sensitive face of the Perumal reflects its joy on seeing the devotee. The face itself looks tender like a lotus which is about to blossom. His eyes also are like freshly blossomed lotus flowers (ambuja charulochanm). His raised eyebrows look like a tender creeper and it reflects His concern for the devotees. His lips are beautiful and are sporting a bewitching smile (suchi smitham). His cheeks are also tender. His nose is sharp and long (unnasam). His conch - like neck is slim. The neck looks more beautiful with the locks of flowing curly hair and His ear drops extending upto His shoulders.
His hands are so tender that one can see the impression of the blue lillies worn by Thayar on Her ears, and of Her ear rings and braids of hair caused when Thayar embraced Perumal with happiness for having extended His rakshaka swabhava i.e. umbrella of protection towards Her children (His devotees). The Lord has four arms which look like the branches of a kalpaka vruksha. His hands reach down upto the knees which is the lakshana of a Paramapurusha. His pink palms have beautiful lines (divyarekha alankruta). His fingers are adorned with valuable rings (divya anguliyaka virajitham). His Thiruvadi resembles freshly blossomed lotuses. (Tatkshana unmilitapundarika sadrusa charana yugalam).
The Lord is wearing a beautiful crown (athi manohara kirita makuta). K-rita is a crown that a king wears whereas makuta is what is worn at the time of pattabhisheka. The combined use of these two words establishes beyond doubt the supremacy of Perumal. He is the unquestioned ultimate monarch. He is wearing a pendent on the top of the forehead (chuda), a decorative cover for the ears cvatamea), ear drops with the fish motif (mikara kundala), a neck band (graiveyaka), rows of chains hanging on the chest (hara), armbands (keyura), a circular band adorning the wrist (kataka), the mole like mark on the chest (Srivatsa).
He has the famous Kousthubha gem on His chest. He wears rows of stringed pearls (mukthadhama). The band worn around the waist (udarabandha), the golden yellow silk cloth (pitambara) and the band of woven gold threads which is used like a belt on the waist to hold the pitambara, beautiful anklets (nupura) and many other jewels. Each of these jewels by association with Perumal is said to exude sweet fragrance (divya gandhiah). Decorated by these divine ornaments, the God is effulgent and a thing of beauty which is a joy for ever. Besides, He is adorned with vyjayanthi vanamala (a garland of unfading flowers). He is holding the panchaayudhas viz. the conch, the discus, the mace, the sword and the bow in His hands.
Ramanuja then describes His attendants. First one to be described is Vishvaksena. The entire weath (aiswarya) of the Lord is entrusted with Vishvaksena who is capable of managing the tasks of creation, protection/destruction of all movable and immoveable objects with his mere thought. He is of great service to Perumal. The other close attendants are Vainatheya i.e. Garuda who is the Lord's vahana. The others are Gajanana, Jayathasena, Harivatra, Kalaprakruti, Kumudaha, Vamanan, Shankakarnan, Sarpanetran, Sumukan, Suprathistithan. All these nityasuris are people who are free from the bondage of samsara unlike the muktas who had gone through the samsara sagara and only later were freed by the Lord's grace. The nityasuris are for ever rendering service to the lotus feet of Bhagavan and their sustenance and daily food is rendering kainkarya to the Lord. Such nityasuris are countless in number in Vaikuntha.
The look of grace (divya kataksha) of Perumal pleases the entire world. The beautiful words that come out of His mouth add to the beauty of the mouth itself. His speech is characterised by admirable qualities like audibility, clarity, meaning, sweet, grace etc. i.e. (divya ghambirya, oudarya, maduryadi, anavadika guna). His words are full of pleasant ideas which are pleasing to the mind. His words are sweet like nectar and indicate His happiness. Such are the kalyana gunas of Perumal.
Having thus described Vaikuntha and the Perumal and others residing in Vaikuntha, Ramanuja says that this vision has to be remembered every day at least once so as to sustain oneself. That is why he says "Tatascha pratyaham atmo jjeevanya evamanus-marate".
He says that the devotees should be ever eager to realise this bliss and should be itching to be taken into His service. Narayana should be the only goal as He is the only master (mama natham). Our master for generations (mama kula deivatam), our saviour for many generations (mama kuladhanam). He is the support and sustenance like one's mother (mama matharam), He is the father (mama pitharam), He is my all (mama sarvam). To see and to think of such a Perumal one should be impatient.
One should wonder as to when one would have the blessing of experiencing the lotus feet of the Lord on one's head. One should wonder as to when he would be blessed by the grace of the cool gaze of the Lord's eyes and to be commanded by Him in His sweet friendly and clear words to be of service to Him. Similar feeling of impatience is mentioned in the line in Thiruvaimozhi 8-5-7 when it is said "mugappe koovippani kollai". It means that I request God to call me and use me for doing eternal kainkarya i.e. service to Him. Ramanuja says that one should show desire for eternal service to Lord i.e.Sarvadesa, Sarvakala, Sarvavasta chita atyanta seshabhavaya). When that offer of service is accepted by God (sweekrutah) the result is removal of all worldly ills (samasta klesa apaham) and conferring absolute supreme happiness and bliss (niruti saya sukhavaham).
The result is therefore two fold, one is negative in nature i.e. removal of one's problems, the other is positive i.e. conferment of anantha, bliss. To get this one should offer to do kainkarya (service), God should accept (sweekrutah) and then place His divine lotus feet on the supplicant devotee's head (sirasikrutam). The contact with His feet (Tiruvadi) makes one experience a joy as if one has had a dip in an ocean of nectar (amrith) i.e. amrita sagarantarnimagnah and sarva avayava sukha masita i.e. every inch of one's body experience the joy and bliss.
To experience and enjoy that bliss one should eternally seek His feet. To conclude let us quote the words of alvar who says "thai nadu kanrae polae, than thuzhaiyan adikkae oye nadi kollum". Translated it means Oh you mortal, you should seek the feet of Bhagavan even as a calf goes seeking its mother, the cow. Only then swamy sambandam gets established when the devotee is swa (property) and Perumal is swamy (the owner of that property). This is again explained clearly when it is said.
The jeevatma has the quality of a thing, a piece of property. Bhagavan has the quality of the owner of that property.
To conclude Ramanuja describes Vaikuntha and Vaikunthanatha and advises the devotee as to what should be the attitude of a supplicant and seeker of moksha. Let us follow the instruction and wake into that heaven.
I wish to only conclude with prayer - into that Heaven of Bliss, My father, let all of us awake.